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Glossary :

  1. Sadra
  2. A sub-type of khayal in Hindustani art music composed in tola jhaptala.

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  3. Sam
  4. The first beat of any tala-cycle. In the early tradition, one of the three ways of establishing a relationship between the beginnings of the song and the tala-cycle was known as sama, indicating thereby an exact correspondence of the melodic and rhythmic cycles.

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  5. Sampurna
  6. Consisting of the seven notes of the basic scale, the term is employed to describe raga-s having seven notes.

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  7. Samvadi
  8. Notes in the basic musical gamut are divided in four classes according to their relative importance in the raga concerned. Vadi is the most important, and samvadi, the next in order of importance, holds 'conversation' with the vadi. Anuvadi forms the third class and consists of all other notes included in the raga. The fourth class- viadi- refers to those notes which are nearly excluded or very rarely used.

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  9. Sanchari
  10. An early tradition of musical genres (still relevant to dhrupad-music) prescribed four subsections to a composition and identified them as sthayi, antara, sanchari, and abhoga.

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  11. Sansthana
  12. An early term synonymous with the modern term that which means a generative framework of seven notes arranged by selec tively including/omitting certain notes. These frameworks are used to extract raga-frames elaborated in music-making. Obviously, that-s themselves are not expected to be presented as music. They merely function as launching-pads for the music to be created. The use of the term marks an end to the murchhana system of music-making prevailing till about the sixteenth century.

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  13. Sargam
  14. A short term indicating the gamut of notes included in music-making. It is also a name for a technique of music elaboration in vocal music. In it, the note-names are themselves sung to make concrete the musical idea.

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  15. Sargamgeet
  16. A music composition made with the names of the notes used as components. That is to say, it does not have words.

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  17. Sath
  18. Accompaniment in music-making, whether melodic, rhythmic, instrumental or vocal.

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  19. Sawan Hindola
  20. Name of a genre of songs sung to welcome the rainy season. As the name suggests, the songs often describe swings and their role in merry-making.

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  21. Seedhi
  22. The term means 'straight-moving' and refers to rhythmic and melodic movement of a kind.

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  23. Shabda
  24. Normally understood as 'word' in compositions, etc. In a larger philosophical perspective, the word is explained as 'the property of the ether and the experience of the ear.'

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  25. Shadava
  26. Consisting of six notes.

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  27. Sher
  28. A couplet in the Urdu verse-form identified as ghazal.

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  29. Shuddha
  30. that The that consisting of shuddha, that is, not augmented or flattened notes.

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  31. Sruti
  32. Microtonal interval.

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  33. Sthayi
  34. With reference to the fundamental arrangement of notes, it is a repetition of the same note. As a name of the compositional section, it refers to the first section which normally covers the lower half of the octave space (for example, as in khayal).

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  35. Sur Swam
  36. that is, note.

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  37. Suravarta
  38. A composition of note-names usually used to initiate a trainee in the intricacies of raga.

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  39. Sushira
  40. According to Indian musicology it is the name of the class of instruments which produce sound by blowing air through sound-holes. Instruments falling under this class are called aerophones.

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  41. Swara
  42. Musical note.

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  43. Swaragrama
  44. The fundamental arrangement of notes in a scale in ancient Indian musicology. Depending on the name of the first note, that is the note from which the basic scale began, early Indian practice identified three swaragrama-s as shadjagrama, madhyamagrama, and gandharagrama respectively.

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  45. Swarartha
  46. A medieval compositional genre in which names of the intended notes (preferably in short forms) were used to compose and present a piece.

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