A phase of melodic musical elaboration presented without tala by employing meaningless syllables such as nom, torn, dir, tana. Also employed by players of musical instruments such as veena, which follow vocal music in this respect. The phase is chiefly asso ciated with the singers/players of the dhrupad genre.
An early classification of musical instruments was done on the basis of their accompanying functions. Instruments were, thus, described as followers of either song, or another instrument or dance.